Past Issues

Predictors for Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Outpatients with Psychiatric Disorders and their Caregivers during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-sectional Study in Taiwan

Kuan-Ying Hsieh, Wei-Tsung Kao, Frank Huang-Chih Chou, Su-Ting Hsu, Dian-Jeng Li, Li-Shiu Chou, Guei-Ging Lin, Wei-Jen Chen, Joh-Jong Huang

Objective: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have psychological impacts on patients with mental disorders and their caregivers. In this study, we intended to explore whether female, previous trauma, lack of social support, additional life stress, and nonpsychotic symptoms, can predict to develop probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during COVID-19 pandemic among outpatients with psychiatric disorders and their caregivers. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited outpatients with psychiatric disorders and their caregivers and collected their sociodemographic variables and levels of PTSD-related symptoms with a copy of self-reported questionnaire. Potential predictors associated with the levels of probable PTSD were identified using simple linear regression analyses. We used logistical regression analysis and multiple linear regression analyses to identify those variables for the independent predictors. Due to the nonnormality of distribution, we used simple and logistic linear regression analyses with 1,000 bootstrap samples to verify the results. Results: We analyzed the study data of 145 participants. Logistic regression analysis showed that activity (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1.409 [0.178–3.711], p < 0.01) and panic symptoms (OR [95% CI] = 20.778 [18.509–23.638], p < 0.01) were significant predictors of developing probable PTSD. Multiple regression analyses showed that individuals with higher education (β = 0.210, p < 0.05) and stressor (β = 0.233, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with higher level of probable PTSD symptoms in the nonprobable PTSD group. Individuals with more chronic physical illness (β = 0.512, p < 0.05) were associated with significantly higher level of probable PTSD symptoms. Conclusion: In the current study, we identified that activity, panic symptoms, high education, stressors, and more chronic physical illness were predictors either in developing probable PTSD or severe probable PTSD symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further studies are warranted to extend the application and generalizability of our study results.
Key Word disaster-related psychological screening test, hopefulness scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, sleep disturbance
Editorial Committe, Taiwanese Journal of Psychiatry
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